“Vergonha de comprar”: nova tendência sueca para preservar meio ambiente

Cláudia Wallin, correspondente da RFI em Estocolmo

Depois do movimento ‘flygskam’ (‘vergonha de voar’, em sueco), começa a tomar corpo na Suécia uma nova tendência para reduzir os impactos negativos da emissão de gases sobre o meio ambiente: o ‘köpskam’, ou ‘vergonha de comprar’. O alvo central é a indústria da moda, setor que segundo a ONU é responsável por cerca de dez por cento das emissões globais de gases de efeito estufa – um índice maior do que o total produzido pela aviação e o transporte marítimo juntos.

É mais uma consequência do ‘Efeito Greta’ – uma referência a Greta Thunberg, a adolescente sueca que iniciou o movimento de greve às aulas para obrigar os governos a agir contra as alterações climáticas e que este mês iniciou sua viagem de duas semanas para cruzar o Oceano Atlântico rumo aos Estados Unidos, onde participará de eventos sobre o clima em setembro.

“Nos dias atuais, são poucos os suecos que se exibem nas redes sociais ‘comprando até cair’, e a preocupação com o meio ambiente é cada vez maior. O köpskam (vergonha de comprar) é a nova tendência”, aponta o jornal sueco Svenska Dagbladet.

“Muitos hesitam antes de comprar mais uma peça de roupa”, reforça Anna Breman, economista chefe do banco Swedbank.

“Voar escondido”

A “köpskam” (“vergonha de comprar”) é mais um neologismo do vocabulário ambiental sueco. Além de “flygskam” (“vergonha de voar”), que denota a preocupação ética em usar meios de transporte menos poluentes, na Suécia também se fala “tågskryt” (“orgulho de andar de trem”). Para quem viaja de avião mas já se sente desconfortável em admitir, a palavra é “smygflyga”, que significa “voar escondido”.

No jornal Expressen, o autor Fredrik Virtanen conclama: ‘É hora de pararmos de comprar roupas’.

“A única maneira de ser politicamente correto em termos de meio ambiente é não comprar mais nenhuma roupa nova”, diz Virtanen. “Não se pode ser um seguidor de Greta Thunberg e ao mesmo tempo comprar a última novidade da indústria de fast fashion. Em 2016, a (gigante sueca da moda) H&M queimou 19 toneladas de roupas encalhadas em uma central térmica da cidade de Västerås. No mesmo ano, a H&M da Dinamarca incinerou 9,6 toneladas de peças de vestuário, o equivalente a 25 mil pares de jeans. Quantas toneladas foram queimadas na Alemanha? E nos Estados Unidos?”, indaga Virtanen.

A partir de agora, Virtanen promete passar pelo menos um ano sem comprar uma única peça de roupa. Com uma única exceção: meias.

“Uma pessoa precisa de boas meias”, ele pondera. “Mas algo me diz que vou parar de consumir por pelo menos um ano mais, caso eu não perca meus três gorros de lã no inverno”.

Brechós na moda

Na Suécia de Greta, comprar peças vintage em brechós e lojas de segunda mão é a nova moda.

“Fazer compras em lojas de segunda mão adquiriu um status muito maior”, destaca Jonas Arnberg, do instituto de pesquisas de comércio HUI Research.

“O melhor que se pode fazer para comprar roupas de forma sustentável é pedalar até a loja de artigos de segunda mão”, recomenda Malin Wennberg, da Mistra Future Fashion, um dos maiores programas de pesquisa sobre moda sustentável do mundo.

No último Natal, as peças de segunda mão foram eleitas na Suécia como o ‘presente do ano’ – o que indica uma mudança de atitude dos suecos em relação a produtos usados.

“Presentes de Natal de segunda mão não são mais vistos como inferiores”, diz Emma Enebog, gerente de desenvolvimento de negócios sustentáveis da Myrorna, uma cadeia de lojas de segunda mão do país. “Há uma conscientização cada vez maior sobre o impacto que o consumo provoca no meio ambiente”, acrescenta ela.

Loja de segunda mão na capital sueca

Nas ruas de Estocolmo, é notória a preocupação dos suecos com o consumo exagerado de roupas.

“Obviamente, devemos nos preocupar com as consequências do consumo excessivo de roupas para o futuro do planeta. Compro poucas roupas, e dou preferência a produtos orgânicos. Também procuro comer pouca carne. Cada um deve fazer a sua parte, e eu faço a minha”, diz Alexandra, que tem 34 anos e prefere não dizer seu sobrenome.

“É claro que a questão ambiental me preocupa, e por isso não sou adepto da fast fashion. Compro em geral menos roupas, mas que vão durar mais”, destaca Jonas Sjöqvist, de 48 anos.

Já Sara Faraj, de 25 anos, prefere fazer compras em lojas de segunda mão.

“É uma coisa muito sueca, comprar em lojas de segunda mão. E temos muitos brechós aqui”, conta Sara.

Ela é contrária, no entanto, à ideia do “köpskam”:

“É importante que todos ajam de forma mais consciente para preservar o meio ambiente, mas penso que cada pessoa deve ter a liberdade de fazer que quiser. Em vez de fazer as pessoas se envergonharem por comprar muito, poderíamos por exemplo aumentar os impostos sobre a venda de roupas nova, a fim de reduzir o consumo”, opina Sara.

A insustentável indústria da moda

A indústria da moda se tornou insustentável: segundo relatório recente da Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Comércio e Desenvolvimento (UNCTAD), para produzir um único par de jeans são necessários cerca de 7.500 litros de água, o que equivale à quantidade que uma pessoa bebe em média num período de sete anos.

A Unctad ressalta que, além de produzir mais emissões poluentes do que o tráfego aéreo e marítimo, a indústria da moda usa a cada ano cerca de 93 bilhões cúbicos de água – o suficiente para atender às necessidades de cinco milhões de pessoas. E 500 mil toneladas de microfibra, que equivalem a três milhões de barris de petróleo, são jogados no oceano anualmente.

O modelo de negócios dominante é o da fast fashion, no qual a indústria oferece constantemente novas coleções a preços baixos e estimula os consumidores a comprar e descartar roupas.

“Se continuarmos com essa abordagem, a expectativa é de que as emissões poluentes da indústria da moda cresçam quase 50% até 2030”, alertou Elisa Tonda, diretora da Unidade de Consumo e Produção da ONU Meio Ambiente.

Apesar das estatísticas preocupantes, a Unctad afirma que a conscientização em relação ao problema é cada vez maior – tanto por parte dos consumidores como dos fabricantes de moda.

“Diversas empresas, incluindo grandes varejistas de moda, estão integrando princípios de sustentabilidade às suas estragégias de negócio”, diz a Unctad.

Entre as empresas citadas estão a H&M, a Guess e a Patagonia, que passou a produzir jaquetas usando poliéster de garrafas PET recicladas.

 

29 de Agosto de 2019

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