Suécia endurece lei antifumo e proíbe cigarro em espaços públicos

Claudia Wallin, correspondente da RFI em Estocolmo

Na Suécia, a meta do governo é tornar o país livre do cigarro até 2025. E para isso, novas restrições ao fumo entraram em vigor neste verão sueco: agora é proibido fumar também nas varandas de bares e restaurantes, assim como em pontos de ônibus, plataformas de trens, parques infantis, campos de esportes e na entrada de lojas, bibliotecas e hospitais. A proibição inclui os cigarros eletrônicos.

A nova lei antifumo tem o apoio da ampla maioria da população – as estatísticas apontam que 11 por cento dos 10 milhões de habitantes da Suécia fumam diariamente. Outros dez por cento fumam apenas ocasionalmente no país, onde a proibição do fumo no interior de bares e restaurantes foi introduzida em 2005.

Além das novas restrições impostas pelo governo a nível nacional, vários municípios do país também determinaram a proibição do fumo em praias e locais públicos de banho.

Turistas desavisados têm se surpreendido com a proibição do fumo em espaços públicos. E a reação dos suecos à nova lei, que entrou em vigor no dia 1 de julho, não tem sido livre de controvérsias.

Deputado não-fumante é contra

Para alguns, a proibição representa um cerceamento das liberdades individuais. O deputado do Partido Liberal sueco Joar Forssell, que sofre de asma e é não-fumante, chegou a se fantasiar de cigarro em um bar ao ar livre de Estocolmo para protestar contra a nova lei. Ele argumentou que as pessoas devem ter o direito de fazer o que quiserem com seus próprios corpos, e citou um estudo recente para afirmar que os riscos representados pelo fumo passivo são exagerados.

“A proibição do cigarro pode parecer uma questão trivial, mas é quando uma minoria faz algo que a maioria não gosta que a tolerância de uma sociedade é posta à prova”, disse Forssell, ao lado de um grupo de manifestantes que fumavam sem parar.

“A ambição é clara – o Estado não quer que as pessoas fumem. Mas qual é o preço, em termos de liberdade invidividual, a ser pago por uma sociedade sem cigarro?  A meu ver, a nova lei tem menos a ver com a saúde dos cidadãos, e mais com uma tentativa de acabar com qualquer comportamento que não seja desejável”, acrescentou ele.

 

O deputado Joar Forssell fantasiado de cigarro em protesto contra a nova lei

Estado patrulhador

Outro debate acalorado aconteceu recentemente na TV do jornal Aftonbladet, quando a editora de cultura se posicionou contra a nova lei.

“Este é um novo tipo de moralismo na Suécia que me desagrada muito”, disse Åsa Linderborg. “A lei antifumo é mais um exemplo de como o Estado patrulha as fronteiras morais, acrescentou a editora.

“Não quero ser fumante passiva”, rebateu uma das participantes do debate. “E tenho o direito de jantar fora sem voltar para casa fedendo como um macaco”.

O governo sueco destaca que a proibição do cigarro em espaços públicos reduz a exposição das pessoas ao fumo – em especial as crianças e adolescentes -, e representa mais um passo na meta de diminuir ainda mais o número de fumantes no país. As autoridades suecas enfatizam que a proibição do fumo no interior de bares e restaurantes, há 14 anos, resultou na redução do fumo e também das doenças relacionadas ao consumo de tabaco. Espera-se, assim, que a nova lei amplie estes resultados.

A fim de vigiar o cumprimento da lei, as autoridades encorajam os cidadãos a denunciar eventuais transgressões às novas normas:

“É uma tarefa impossível controlar se a proibição do fumo está sendo cumprida em todos os locais atingidos pela lei. O público deve prestar queixa contra estabelecimentos que permitirem o fumo”, disse Suzanne Bengtsson, do conselho administrativo do município de Estocolmo, em entrevista à TV sueca.

Vigilância e punição

Em princípio, os fumantes que violam a lei não são diretamente punidos: cabe aos donos de bares e restaurantes, por exemplo, garantir o cumprimento da proibição. E a multa a esses estabelecimentos por eventuais infrações pode chegar a 50 mil coroas suecas, o equivalente a cerca de R$ 20 mil.

Parte dos proprietários de bares e restaurantes reclama que, dessa forma, seus funcionários estão tendo a função extra de vigiar os clientes.

“Acho errado que nós, donos de estabelecimentos, sejamos multados se outras pessoas não respeitarem a lei. Seria mais lógico aplicar multas contra aqueles que infringirem as normas”, diz Jennifer Glag, dona de um bistrô.

Mas se um fumante se negar a apagar o cigarro diante de uma advertência, e também se recusar a deixar o local, ele pode ser retirado pela polícia – e em seguida responder a um processo legal que pode acarretar multas.

Mascar fumo

Apesar de o consumo de cigarros estar em declínio na Suécia, não se pode dizer o mesmo em relação ao snus – o tradicional tabaco sueco umedecido, que foi criado no país no século XVIII. Envolvido em embalagens que parecem saquinhos de chá em miniatura, o snus é usado entre a gengiva e o lábio superior, e libera nicotina por cerca de uma hora. O produto é ilegal em todos os países da União Européia, com exceção da Suécia e da Noruega – que também adotou medidas vigorosas contra o fumo.

14 de Agosto de 2019

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