Assembléias Regionais: 94% dos políticos não recebem salário

 

A nível regional, a representação política na Suécia também é considerada uma atividade extra a ser exercida em paralelo a um emprego remunerado, de onde todo político deve tirar seu próprio sustento.
A Suécia, um Estado unitário, é dividida em 290 municípios (kommuner) e 20 condados (landsting). Em todas as assembléias municipais e regionais do país, a regra não tem exceção: os vereadores e deputados regionais não recebem salário e não têm gabinete, secretária, assistentes nem carros oficiais com motorista particular.
Assim como ocorre na esfera das municipalidades, apenas os integrantes da presidência e dos comitês das Assembléias regionais (Landstingsfullmäktige) recebem remuneração para trabalhar como políticos em tempo integral ou parcial. Os deputados regionais ganham apenas uma pequena gratificação.
”Nas Assembléias regionais, 94 por cento dos políticos não recebem salário”, diz Bo Per Larsson, gerente da Associação Sueca de Autoridades Municipais e Regionais (Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting).
”O típico político, a nível local e regional, vai trabalhar todos os dias em um emprego normal, a não ser que seja aposentado ou estudante”, completa Larsson.
Um cargo histórico e em grande parte cerimonial, no entanto, desafina o tom austero das normas suecas: os governadores dos condados, ou landshövdingar, vivem em residências oficiais, recebem salários e dispõem de carro com motorista, ainda que apenas quando participam de eventos oficiais. Mas não se trata, na verdade, de um cargo político: os governadores, em geral personalidades de diferentes setores da sociedade sueca, ou ex-políticos, são servidores públicos nomeados pelo governo central para representar o Executivo nos condados.
”É uma tradição de 400 anos”, defende Björn Eriksson, ex-governador do condado de Östergötland (sudeste da Suécia) e ex-Comissário-Chefe da Polícia Nacional Sueca (Rikspolisstyrelsen).
”Até 1860, os landshövdingar eram os representantes do rei nos condados, e até hoje Sua Majestade (o rei Carl Gustaf VI) se hospeda na residência dos governadores quando viaja pelo país”, acrescenta Eriksson, que passou a ocupar o cargo de coordenador nacional de ações contra crimes relacionados ao esporte.
O posto de ländshövding foi introduzido em 1634, quando a Suécia foi dividida em condados. Até 1958, os chamados governadores ainda detinham oficialmente o pomposo título de Kunglig Majestäts befallningshavande, representantes oficiais de Sua Majestade. E em alguns condados, como o de Östergötland, eles ainda vivem em verdadeiros castelos.
Uma das personalidades mais controvertidas da Suécia, o ex-governador Björn Eriksson viveu até 2009 no Castelo de Linköping, uma construção de 1,9 mil metros quadrados datada do século XII. Costumava organizar ali inúmeros eventos oficiais do condado de Östergötland, e também extra-oficiais – como os espetáculos de teatro em que participava ora como ator, ora servindo café aos convidados.
”O castelo é mantido por funcionários que cuidam da manutenção e limpeza, e abriga ainda um museu da Idade Média, que é aberto ao público. Na minha época tínhamos também uma cozinheira, mas apenas para ocasiões oficiais. No dia a dia, sempre cozinhei minha própria comida”, afirma Eriksson.
”Se acredito que o cargo vai um dia ser abolido? Creio que não. A tradição desempenha um papel importante aqui. Mas se algum landshövding usar os benefícios do cargo para proveito pessoal, como sair de carro com motorista fora de eventos oficiais, poderia ser o fim do sistema”, avalia Eriksson.
O presidente da Associação Sueca de Autoridades Municipais e Regionais, Anders Knape, aposta na manutenção da tradição.
”A tradição é que os landshövdingar são um símbolo do país. E eles contam com forte apoio das populações locais, que também apreciam a tradição das residências oficiais e dos protocolos do cargo. Quando o governador de um condado diz que preferiria viver no próprio apartamento, as pessoas se opõem. Mas nem todos os condados possuem castelos para os governadores”, diz Knape.
Os governadores dos condados presidem os conselhos administrativos regionals (Länsstyrelssen), que representam o Executivo sueco nas regiões. Sua tarefa é garantir que os cidadãos de um condado estão sendo beneficiados pelas decisões tomadas pelo governo central, e também informar o Executivo sobre as necessidades da região. Mas seu poder executivo é restrito: é a Assembléia regional o mais alto órgão decisório dos landsting (condados), que têm como principal atribuição cuidar dos serviços de saúde pública.
”Por razões históricas, os governadores de condados participam de eventos cerimoniais, em diferentes contextos. O cargo tem assim um aspecto simbólico, embora os governadores tenham alguns poderes administrativos em áreas como a proteção de animais e a distribuição de recursos da União Européia a agricultores locais. Mas os governadores na Suécia, que não são governadores no sentido que se dá em outros países, são servidores públicos, e não políticos”, esclarece o presidente da Associação.
Segundo a agência central de estatística da Suécia (Statistiska Centralbyrån), a média salarial dos governadores de condado é de 62.600 coroas suecas mensais (aproximadamente 9,5 mil dólares) – o que representa cerca de cinco mil coroas (cerca de 766 dólares) a mais do que ganha em média um médico na Suécia.  Os governadores são geralmente nomeados para mandatos de seis anos, que podem ser prolongados caso o titular não tenha alcançado a idade de aposentadoria.

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