BH é destaque em conferência sobre desenvolvimento sustentável na Suécia

Claudia Wallin, para a Rádio França Internacional

Referência em sustentabilidade, a capital mineira de Belo Horizonte foi um dos destaques da conferência internacional sobre desenvolvimento sustentável urbano realizada esta semana na cidade de Malmo, na Suécia. O evento “Speeding Up for Change” reuniu investidores, especialistas e representantes de diferentes cidades e regiões a fim de definir estratégias e soluções inovadoras nos setores de energia e transporte para uma economia livre de combustíveis fósseis.

Na conferência, foram anunciadas duas novas linhas de fundos, no valor total de US$ 140 milhões, para o financiamento de pesquisas e projetos de desenvolvimento sustentável. Duas competições internacionais para premiar projetos inovadores de sistemas de energia e mobilidade urbana também foram anunciadas durante o evento, que foi organizado pela Agência Sueca de Energia com o apoio de entidades como o WWF e o UN Habitat (Programa das Nações Unidas para os Assentamentos Humanos).

Um dos objetivos centrais da participação de Belo Horizonte na conferência foi a busca de parcerias para viabilizar novos projetos ambientais na capital mineira. As iniciativas sustentáveis desenvolvidas na cidade foram apresentadas no evento pela secretária municipal de Política Urbana de Belo Horizonte, Maria Fernandes Caldas.

“Fomos convidados pela Embaixada da Suécia para falar sobre a experiência de Belo Horizonte, uma vez que a cidade vem fazendo um trabalho consistente neste campo. Nós elaboramos um inventário que identificou as principais fontes emissoras, e, com base nesse registro, elaboramos um plano municipal de redução de gases de efeito estufa”, disse à RFI a secretária municipal.

Segundo Maria Caldas, o plano de sustentabilidade de Belo Horizonte estabelece diversas estratégias para alcançar a meta de 20% de redução per capita das emissões até 2030.

“Todas essas estratégias são construídas por meio de um processo participativo, com universidades, governos, setor privado e um comitê municipal de mudanças climáticas e eco eficiência, e são constantemente monitoradas”, destacou a secretária municipal.

A secretária municipal de Política Urbana de Belo Horizonte, Maria Fernandes Caldas.
Foto: Claudia Wallin

Desafios do desenvolvimento urbano

Durante a conferência de Malmo, foram debatidos os principais desafios do desenvolvimento urbano – a produção de energia sustentável e o setor de transportes. Na Suécia, a meta é tornar toda a frota de transportes do país livre de combustíveis fósseis até 2030. Para isto, o governo investe em uma série de inovações, como a criação de rodovias elétricas para transporte de cargas e ônibus elétricos que podem ser recarregados a partir de fontes de energias renováveis.

Em abril deste ano, a Suécia também começou a cobrar um imposto ecológico sobre o transporte aéreo: a taxa varia entre 60 e 400 coroas suecas (aproxidamente entre R$ 25 e R$ 170) por viagem, de acordo com o destino, e será aplicada a todos os voos que partem de um aeroporto sueco.

Em Belo Horizonte, segundo Maria Caldas, um dos maiores problemas a serem enfrentados é a redução do efeito estufa proveniente do transporte rodoviário, que é responsável por 71% das emissões.

“Nós preparamos várias propostas estruturantes, entre elas o novo Plano Diretor do muncípio, que é o principal instrumento de ordenamento territorial. Este novo plano propõe alterar a dinâmica de expansão urbana para orientar o crescimento da cidade pela lógica do transporte sustentável. Ele prevê várias medidas de planejamento para conectar o uso do solo urbano com o transporte coletivo, e assim promover áreas urbanas mais compactas e reduzir o número de viagens”, disse a secretária de Política Urbana.

BH é exemplo de iluminação sustentável

Em sua apresentação na conferência sobre as medidas sustentáveis já adotadas na capital mineira, Maria Caldas destacou a substituição das lâmpadas incandescentes e halógenas em todos os sinais de trânsito por lâmpadas de LED, assim como o projeto – já em andamento – de converter mais de 170 mil luminárias de toda a iluminação pública para o sistema LED. Essas medidas, de acordo com a secretária municipal, fazem da capital mineira a cidade com a maior quantidade instalada de lâmpadas LED na América Latina.

Maria Caldas ressaltou ainda que, com a implantação em 2010 da Central de Aproveitamento Energético de Biogás, Belo Horizonte deixou de lançar na atmosfera cerca de quatro milhões de toneladas de CO2. O município promove ainda incentivos para fomentar a instalação de indústrias limpas, e a cidade já se destaca como pólo de startups neste campo.

O conjunto das iniciativas ambientais implementadas em Belo Horizonte já rendeu ao município uma série de premiações, entre elas o título de Capital Brasileira da Hora do Planeta – um prêmio promovido pelo WWF (Fundo Mundial para a Natureza) e outorgado anualmente por um júri internacional em diversos países. A capital mineira se destacou, entre outros projetos, pela Usina Solar Fotovoltaica instalada na cobertura do Mineirão, um dos estádios da Copa do Mundo de 2014.

Segundo a WWF-Brasil, Belo Horizonte é considerada referência na aplicação do coletor solar para aquecimento de água. Atualmente, cerca de  três mil edifícios residenciais de Belo Horizonte utilizam o sistema.

Um dos objetivos centrais da participação de Belo Horizonte na conferência foi a busca de parcerias para viabilizar novos projetos ambientais na capital mineira. Foto: Claudia Wallin

Com a participação na conferência da Suécia, a expectativa de Maria Caldas é de que novas frentes possam ser abertas na busca de parcerias para financiar os projetos ambientais estratégicos da capital mineira.

“Foi um evento bastante positivo. Nós fizemos contatos importantes para o financiamento e a viabilização de projetos como a substituição da frota de ônibus por veículos elétricos, que é um projeto de impacto muito importante na emissão de gases em Belo Horizonte”, disse a secretária municipal de Política Urbana ao final da conferência.

A principal meta da conferência, segundo os organizadores, foi criar uma rede de cooperação internacional destinada a  impulsionar o cumprimento das metas climáticas do Acordo sobre o Clima de Paris.

“É exatamente desta cooperação sistemática que nós precisamos, se quisermos alcançar as metas climáticas e a transformação global para uma economia livre de combustíveis fósseis”, disse à RFI Charlotte Lejon, da Agência Sueca de Energia (Energimyndigheten).

26 de Maio de 2018

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