Reduzir a corrupção é possível

[show_fb_likes] Até o fim do século XVIII, podia-se dizer que havia algo de podre no Reino da Suécia. Mas chegara o momento inadiável de destampar os esgotos. O processo de mudanças que transformaria a face do país, como se verá adiante, foi essencialmente uma reforma revolucionária das instituições da Suécia. A lei da transparência marchava ao lado, como aliada de força jupiteriana na faxina nacional que se produziu.

No fim do século XIX, a corrupção política foi praticamente varrida a nível federal. Uma nova moral, com sólidas regras de honestidade, emergiu no país. Da concepção de que a coisa pública não é de ninguém, pouco se ouviria falar.

A manobra foi quase perfeita. Como apontam os autores de um dos mais recentes estudos sobre corrupção publicados na Suécia, uma sociedade na qual ninguém tenta tirar vantagem de ninguém é seguramente uma utopia.

A nível nacional, todos concordam que a Suécia continua praticamente livre de corrupção política. O dilema atual dos suecos é combater os embusteiros que atuam em certo grau na esfera municipal, e que alimentam os jornais com os escândalos políticos do país. Trata-se de uma estirpe de moral tortuosa que germinou, segundo pesquisadores suecos, a partir de relações incestuosas entre autoridades e empresários locais – um cenário produzido em parte, na opinião de alguns, como consequência da onda de privatizações parciais iniciadas nos serviços públicos municipais na década de 90. Numa sociedade altamente descentralizada como a sueca, o campo também é fértil para relações promíscuas a nível local.

No geral, porém, este é um país sem vícios explícitos de corrupção. Se as estatísticas não mentem, são poucos os predadores de impostos que habitam este país como representantes do povo.

”A maioria dos políticos suecos não é corrupta”, afirma a comentarista política Lena Mehlin, do jornal Aftonbladet. ”A nível municipal, abusos vêm ocorrendo. Mas a nível nacional, nenhum político paga sequer por almoços ou jantares com o dinheiro do Estado”.

Mais difícil é erradicar o que se chama por aqui de vänskapskorruption (”amiguismo”) – a célebre troca de favores. Um exemplo extremo foi a controvérsia que envolveu o primeiro-ministro Olof Palme, na década de 80: um jornalista sueco revelou que, ao ser convidado para proferir uma palestra na universidade americana de Harvard, Palme não cobrara honorários – mas teria indicado, durante a visita, o interesse de seu filho, Joakim Palme, em estudar na instituição. Pouco depois, Joakim Palme recebeu uma bolsa de estudos para cursar gratuitamente a universidade. Na imprensa sueca, foi levantada a pergunta: não deveria o primeiro-ministro pagar impostos sobre o benefício concedido ao filho? Olof Palme não havia declarado o benefício. Mas as autoridades fiscais suecas entenderam que sim, ele deveria pagar impostos sobre a bolsa de estudos recebida pelo filho, e avaliaram o valor a ser pago em 40 mil coroas suecas. Com a notícia do trágico assassinato de Olof Palme dias depois, em 28 de fereveiro de 1986, o debate ficou inconcluído. Mas o caso ficou conhecido como o Harvard Affair.

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